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# stats questions

1. The researcher using inferential statistics always makes predictions thatare based on having measureda. a populationb. a samplec.  the entire group being predictedd.  in inferential statistics predictions are never made2. The goal of the researcher using inferential statistics is toa.  make better-than-chance predictionsb.  predict the characteristics of the entire group, based on measures takenon a smaller groupc.  describe the difference between the highest and lowest scored.  a and b, but not c3. An example of a variable would bea.  heightb.  weightc.  the number of inches in a footd.  a and b, but not c4. Anything that can be measured and observed to vary is calleda.  a constantb.  a variablec.  an integerd.  all of these5. The statement that one can prove anything with statistics is only true whena.  the data have been fakedb.  the reader is naive regarding statistical proceduresc.  the statement is always trued.  the statement is never true6. The first attempt to employ statistical techniques for estimatingpopulation parameters was designed in order toa.  estimate beer-drinking tastes in Dublin, Irelandb.  calculate the odds for casino gambling in Francec.  calculate the probability of certain exponential functionsd.  all of these7. The first attempt to employ probability theory in a practical setting wasdeveloped in order toa.  predict the results of presidential electionsb.  predict economic forces in the market placec.  predict how consumers will evaluate new productsd.  make winning bets in the gambling casinos8. One author suggests that the best way to compare the safety of autos versus planes is on the basis ofa. the total number of deaths per year for each mode of travelb. the total number of individuals who drive versus fly.c. the per-hour death rate for the two modes of traveld. none of these, since travel rates are not comparable.9. In comparing the safety of allowing children to visit friends whose parentsown a gun versus those parents who have a swimming pool, it was found thata. there was no safety difference between the twob. children were safer at the homes with swimming poolsc.  children were safer at the homes with gunsd.  more parents had guns than swimming pools10. Since poll results are based on a sample size which is less than the population size, generalizing from the sample to the population demandsa.       data graphingb. inferential statisticsc. descriptive statistics onlyd.  leap of faith11. The commercial that specifies that a certain brand of aspirin should be used, since no other brand prevents more heart attacks proves thata.       the brand mentioned prevents more heart attacks than does its competitionb.      the brand mentioned has been proven to prevent heart attacksc.       the brand mentioned has only been shown effective when combined with exercised.    none of the above12.  When scores are arranged in order of magnitude, the researcher has formed aa.  histogramb.  measure of centralityc.  measure of dispersiond.  distribution13.  Traditionally, the researcher indicates frequency of occurrence on thegraph’sa.  ordinateb.  abscissac.  line of ascentd.  horizontal axis14.  When single points are used to designate the frequency of each score, thepoints being connected by a series of straight lines, this is called aa.  frequency polygonb.  frequency rectanglec.  scatter plotd.  histogram15.  The mean, median, and mode are all measures ofa.  dispersionb.  variabilityc.  central tendencyd.  all of these16.  When a graph is constructed using a series of rectangles indicating thefrequency of occurrence for each score, it is called aa.  frequency polygonb.  frequency rectanglec.  scatter plotd.  histogram17.  The measurement which occurs most often in a distribution is called thea.  medianb.  percentilec.  meand.  mode18. When a distribution is skewed, the researcher who is  interested in centraltendency should use thea.  meanb.  medianc.  moded.  all of these are appropriate19.  When a distribution shows a large majority of very low scores and a fewvery high scores, the distribution is said to bea.  skewed to the rightb.  skewed to the leftc.  skewed to the middled.  bimodal20.  The influence of a few extreme scores in one direction is most pronouncedon the value of thea.  meanb.  medianc.  moded.  percentile21. Using the mean to indicate centrality on a distribution of income scoresusually results ina.  a false image of povertyb.  an accurate portrayal of incomec.  a false image of prosperityd.  income scores never lend themselves to centrality22.  The concept of “individual differences” may best be described bya.  the modeb.  the medianc.  the measures of central tendencyd.  the measures of variability23.  The difference between the highest and lowest scores in any distribution iscalleda.  the deviation scoreb.  the standard deviationc.  the ranged.  none of these24.  Of the following, the measure(s) of variability is (are),a.  the rangeb.  the standard deviationc.  the moded.  a and b, but not c25.  One major defect of the range is thata.  it includes the entire width of the distributionb.  it is based on only two scoresc.  it is not a measure of variabilityd.  all of these26.  The measure of the entire width of the distribution is called thea.  rangeb.  percentilec.  quartiled.  b and c, but not a27.  When new scores that are close to the mean are added to any distribution,there is a fairly high probability that the range willa.  remain unaffectedb.  be reducedc.  be increasedd.  new scores may never be added to a distribution28.  Specific points may be located on any distribution by using thea.  percentileb.  quartilec.  deciled.  all of these2529.  A score which is at the 95th percentile must exceeda.  at least 5% of the scoresb.  at least 95% of the scoresc.  at least 45% of the scoresd.  at least the lowest 47.50% of the scores30.  When a student takes a 600-item standardized test and is told he/she is atthe 70th percentile, it means that the studenta.  answered 30% of the items correctlyb.  answered more than 70% of the items correctlyc.  answered exactly 420 items correctlyd.  none of these31. A score which falls at the 50th percentile must always be at thea.  meanb.  modec.  mediand.  none of these