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The Influence of Strategic Planning on Organizational Performance of Tesla Incorporated

Chapter 2: Literature Review[RW1] 

As highlighted in chapter 1, the purpose of this a qualitative approach embedded to explore the strategic plan employed by the Tesla leadership to achieve growth, market expansion, and overall performance[RW2] . Every business executive wants to experience success of their company. Making a profit and appeasing stakeholders are noble goals, but they cannot be achieved without a strong business strategy (Deng et al., 2020; Zhao et al., 2017). By developing a strategy that adds value to the company, consumers, suppliers, and employees, leaders can achieve success by honing their abilities and establishing clear corporate goals. According to Sudian et al. (2021), business strategy is paramount in every organization as it helps leaders to create values for both the company and stakeholders, while gaining a competitive advantage in the market. Previous studies show reliable evidence to support that business strategy is a critical component for organizational performance in the Tesla motor industry (Deng et al., 2020; Li & Deng, 2017).

The first section of this literature review presents the conceptual framework of Tesla’s business strategy and its influence on organizational performance in the motor industry. This section includes business strategy, job motivation, and satisfaction in organization success. The second section of the literature connects the various components that comprise a holistic business strategy. The chapter also examines the current evidence concerning the effects of the  Tesla’s business strategy on Global expansion strategies, marketing strategies, market intelligence, the significance of globalization to business operations, and dynamic capabilities. The third section of the chapter advances the critique of the concepts of business strategy on the model adopted by Tesla Corporation.

The focal point of this literature review is scholarly/peer-reviewed journals that elucidate on the concept of business strategy, impact of global expansion strategies, employee motivations, job satisfaction, dynamic capabilities, and organizational performance in the motor industry (Deng et al., 2020; Huang, 2023; Al-Shami & Rashid, 2022). This chapter will make use of Franklin University’s online library and sources. ProQuest databases, EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, Business Source Complete, Management & Organizations Studies SBA Journals, and Google Scholar are among the online resources available for this study. Critical keywords comprise business strategy, automobile firms, the global electric vehicle (EV) market, organizational performance, strategic planning, and market expansion. Some of the key journals for consideration are the Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Management & Organization Review, and Journal of Business research, among others.  

Rapid changes are [RW3] taking place in the global car industry as producers switch from conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) to rechargeable electric vehicles (EVs). The necessity to cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuels as part of a strategy to tackle climate change has prompted the switch. By creating and funding EV infrastructure, China, and the European Union (EU) are leading the transition of the automotive sector. According to estimates, China produced about half of the world’s electric vehicle sales in 2018. Less than 20% of all EV sales around the world during that time were made in the U.S. (Mojumder et al., 2022). The global trend for the EV market is now positive. 

 According to Canalys (2021), EV sales climbed by more than 39% globally in 2020, and predictions indicate that by 2028, almost 30 million EVs will have been sold. One of the primary companies promoting the switch from ICEs to EVs on the international market is Tesla. In the EV market today, Tesla holds the highest market share.

The market for electric cars is one of the most dynamic sectors in the clean energy sector. The rate of growth has been especially astonishing, even as the global pandemic reduced the demand for conventional cars and as manufacturers began to face supply chain bottlenecks. A major consideration in EV purchasing decisions has always been capital cost, with 63% of consumers stating that an EV is out of their price range (Tran et al., 2021). The difficulty of scaling the required infrastructure and supply of raw materials to enable the mainstream adoption of EVs, however, is now being focused on as the cost of batteries is expected to reduce and cost parity between EVs and ICE vehicles to be achieved by 2026.[RW4] 

Facing competition from manufactures of international combustion engine, Tesla’s Incorporated design team must rely on clear cutting edge technology to withstand market turbulence (Webb et al., 2019; Suttakul et al., 2022). The Tesla design team plays a central role in determining the company’s competitive advantage (Sudian et al., 2021). The electric automaker therefore distinguishes its vehicles based on sustainability, performance, and design (Anderson et al., 2022). Despite the growing evidence that business strategy influences growth, little is known about the influences of strategic planning on organizational performance of Tesla Inc.[RW5]  (Qin, 2023; Sudian et al., 2021). [RW6] High production costs and small market share is a thorny issue facing Tesla Inc. that can lead to poor performance (Gupta & Vardhan, 2016; Webb et al., 2019).  

Conceptual Framework

Strategic planning includes all organizational processes for formulating strategy, deciding on a course of action, and allocating resources in order to pursue the ideal state that is anticipated for the future (George et al., 2019; Jayawarna & Dissanayake, 2019). The process of strategic planning is essential for guaranteeing effectiveness and enhanced performance considering the significance that strategic plans play in achieving an organization’s vision and mission as well as the necessity for focus and alignment. A crucial component of any firm is strategic planning. Most businesses are aware of the need of articulating their vision, mission, goals, improvement targets, and objectives, as well as the steps required to get there. A lot of effort has been done over time to increase the accuracy of strategic planning. There isn’t a single, obvious manner that businesses should conduct their strategic planning activities. 

Modern firms [RW7] frequently use strategic planning as a management strategy. Its widespread acceptance is based on the presumption that it is a successful practice in both public and private companies with favorable effects on organizational performance. Nonetheless, others have argued that strategic planning prevents strategic thinking since it is extremely logical. While strategic planning includes the creation, implementation, and management of the primary goals pursued by an organization’s top leadership on behalf of shareholders, careful examination of the external environment in which the business operates is crucial.

The framework [RW8] provided by strategic planning helps management realize its future vision. Management creates objectives, sets goals, and plans activities to achieve those goals through the strategic planning process. In order to achieve strategic objectives and goals, implementation is the process that converts strategies and plans into actions. As crucial as, if not more so than, the strategy is putting the strategic plan into action.

Strategic planning (SP) is one of the more often used management techniques in modern organizations and is consistently rated as one of the top five managerial techniques globally (Bersch et al., 2021; George et al., 2019). Some of the elements of SP include analyzing the organization’s purpose, mission, and values; examining its internal and external environment; identifying strategic issues based on these studies; and formulating strategies, goals, and plans to address the challenges (Bersch et al., 2021).  To aid in a better understanding of the relationship between strategic planning and organizational perfoamnce consider conceptual map as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

Conceptual Framework of Stratgic Planing and Organizational Perfoamnce

The performance and planning outcomes have yielded conflicting findings. Most research has revealed a favorable association between strategic planning and company performance (George et al., 2019; Jayawarna & Dissanayake, 2019). In contrast, some researchers  (Ali, 2018; Bersch et al., 2021) showed no relationship, and one identified a negative relationship (Jayawarna & Dissanayake, 2019[RW9] ). Examining organizational or environmental variables has been given little to no attention in earlier research on formal strategic planning and performance, which has been criticized (Anna & Agnieszka, 2022). Even though efforts to study planning performance have significantly slowed over the past 10 years, managers in the field continually cite strategic planning as the most often utilized management tool (Khazalle et al., 2022)

Empirical Review[RW10] 

Strategic Planning Practices in Automotive Industry

            Many strategists, scholars, and practitioners view strategy as a purposeful, meticulously planned out process that is legally documented. Their plan was founded on rigorous scientific research (scanning, analysis, assessment, formulation, execution, implementation, etc.). Dmitriy et al. (2019) described strategy as the process of formulating, implementing, and controlling strategy while formally documenting organizational expectations using methodical criteria and thorough study. Similary, Pillai et al. (2020) argues that formal strategic planning is a procedure for identifying the company’s long-term goals, developing and assessing alternative strategies, as well as setting up a system for tracking the results of the plan’s implementation.

            According to Ali (2018), formal planning processes for strategies include written strategic plans that cover time periods of three years or longer, specify goals and objectives and the resources required to achieve them, evaluate the environmental factors affecting an organization, and offer ongoing control and measurement systems to track progress and make necessary adjustments. Also, it’s important to win over stakeholders’ support by involving them, at least throughout the design phase (mission, vision, and objectives stages), and allowing them to support the causes that truly matter to them (Ali, 2018; Dmitriy et al., 2019). These requirements must be met in order for the formal strategic planning thorough setup to be complete. Key compinent of strategic planning includes: 

Strategy Formulation

Strategy formulation involves creating a plan to achieve a goal. Mathews et al. (2019) claims that Tesla Inc.’s strategy planning prioritizes technological advancement and environmental sustainability. The corporation wants to accelerate the switch to greener energy. The company’s strategic goals include increasing electric vehicle production, battery technology development, and charging station networks. Another goal is to reduce transportation’s environmental impact. Jena and Sahu (2021) note that Tesla’s strategy planning includes creating an innovative product range. The company’s solar and electric vehicles are designed to minimize environmental effects while maximizing technological sophistication. Tesla’s strategic planning prioritizes research and development to keep its goods cutting-edge.

Organizational performance is how well an organization achieves its goals.Stipić (2021) suggested assessing Tesla’s organizational effectiveness based on its financial performance, customer satisfaction, and employee engagement. [RW11] Since 2003, the Company’s revenue has grown steadily. Tesla’s customers also love the company’s unique and eco-friendly designs. Tesla’s high employee satisfaction and retention rates contribute to its organizational performance. Tesla is a popular employer.[RW12] 

The motor vehicle industry [RW13] strategic planning and organizational performance center on cutting-edge technology and environmental responsibility. Tesla’s long-term strategy prioritizes the development of environmentally friendly, advanced goods, according to Innovation and sustainability influence the Company’s performance. [RW14] Tesla’s success is due to its concentration on environmentally friendly products that appeal to environmentally conscious consumers. Innovation and sustainability also contribute to the company’s great customer satisfaction and workforce engagement. Tesla’s strategic planning and organizational performance emphasis on research and development is another resemblance. Tesla’s strategy planning prioritizes research and development to keep its goods cutting-edge. [RW15] Research and development boost firm performance. Tesla has maintained its advantage over competitors due to its high appreciation for its products’ technological breakthroughs.

Tesla’s strategic planning and organizational performance emphasize financial performance (Stipić, 2021). say financial success best reflects Tesla’s organizational performance.[RW16]  The company’s annual revenue growth supports this. Tesla’s strategic planning appears to include more than economic achievement. Innovation and sustainability are the Company’s strategic priorities, with financial success a result.

Tesla’s emphasis on employee participation distinguishes its strategic planning from organizational performance (Stipić, 2021). Tesla assesses performance using employee engagement. According to data,[RW17]  the organization has great employee satisfaction and retention. Tesla’s strategic planning appears to include more than employee engagement. Innovation and sustainability are the company’s strategic priorities, with employee engagement as a result.

Strategy implementation[RW18] 

The process of carrying out a plan or a course of action to accomplish a specific aim or purpose is known as strategy implementation. The implementation of Tesla’s approach comprises a focus on speed and agility, according to Ferretti et al. (2020). The company’s performance has been significantly influenced by its ability to quickly adopt new concepts and technologies. The execution of Tesla’s strategy also strongly emphasizes vertical integration, which enables the business to oversee every aspect of production and guarantee the quality of its goods. The implementation of Tesla’s strategy also includes a focus on continual improvement, according to Hertog and McKeown (2020). The business is continually enhancing the caliber of its products and streamlining its production procedures. The company’s high levels of client satisfaction and loyalty directly result from its emphasis on ongoing improvement. 

The effectiveness of an organization in attaining its goals and objectives is measured by its organizational performance. According to Kasozi and Rukundo (2021), several variables, such as financial success, customer happiness, and employee engagement, can be used to assess Tesla’s organizational performance. Since its founding in 2003, its financial performance has been solid, with annual sales growth. Tesla consistently receives good marks from its customers, who laud its cutting-edge and environmentally friendly products. Tesla receives great rankings for staff satisfaction and retention, another aspect influencing the organization’s effectiveness.

The emphasis on continual improvement shared by Tesla’s strategy execution and organizational performance is a fundamental similarity. According to Hertog and McKeown (2020), Tesla’s implementation of its strategy includes a focus on continuous development to keep its goods and procedures at the top of the market. The Company’s organizational success reflects this emphasis on ongoing improvement. Due in part to its dedication to continuous innovation and high-quality product production, Tesla has high consumer loyalty and satisfaction levels.

The emphasis on speed and agility shared by Tesla’s plan execution and organizational performance is another similarity. According to Ferretti et al. (2020), Tesla’s strategy implementation focuses on speed and agility to implement new concepts and technologies quickly. The Company’s organizational performance reflects this emphasis on speed and agility. [RW19] Tesla has stayed ahead of its rivals because of its swift response time to shifting market conditions and client demands. 

Focusing on financial performance significantly distinguishes Tesla’s plan implementation and organizational performance. The financial performance of Tesla’s organization, with the company’s revenue rising each year, is measured by performance, according to Kasozi and Rukundo (2021). Nevertheless, it does not appear that Tesla’s implementation of its strategy is only concerned with financial performance. Instead, implementing the Company’s strategy focuses on speed, agility, and continual development, with economic success resulting from these efforts.

Tesla’s emphasis on employee involvement [RW20] is another distinction between the organization’s success and the plan implementation. According to Kasozi and Rukundo (2021), employee engagement is a key indicator of an organization’s performance, and Tesla consistently scores highly in this area. The execution of Tesla’s approach, nevertheless, does not appear to be entirely centered on staff involvement. Instead, implementing the Company’s strategy focuses on speed, agility, and continuous improvement, with employee engagement resulting from these efforts.

Strategy Evaluation and Control

The process of evaluating a company’s strategies for effectiveness and making necessary adjustments to help it accomplish its goals and objectives is known as strategy assessment and control. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used in Tesla’s strategy evaluation and management, according to Kaplan and Norton (2008), to track the company’s performance and pinpoint areas that need improvement. Financial performance, consumer happiness, and employee engagement are some KPIs. Similarly, Gamble et al. (2020) pointed out that Tesla uses data analytics to evaluate its performance and pinpoint areas for improvement as part of its strategy evaluation and management. Data analytics has greatly aided the Company’s ability to detect and promptly address issues with its production processes.

The effectiveness of an organization’s performance is determined by how successfully it accomplishes its goals and objectives. According to Gamble et al. (2020), several variables, such as financial success, customer happiness, and employee engagement, can be used to gauge Tesla’s organizational performance.[RW21] Since its founding in 2003, its financial performance has been solid, with annual sales growth. Tesla consistently receives good marks from its customers, who laud its cutting-edge and environmentally friendly products. Tesla receives great rankings for staff satisfaction and retention, another aspect influencing the organization’s effectiveness. [RW22] 

The emphasis on data and analytics in Tesla’s strategy review and control and organizational performance is significantly similar. Data analytics is used in Tesla’s strategy review and management, according to Kryvoviaziuk et al. (2021), to monitor the Company’s performance and pinpoint areas that need improvement. [RW23] The organizational success of the corporation also reflects this emphasis on data and analytics. Tesla has stayed ahead of its rivals and maintained high levels of client satisfaction and loyalty because of its ability to quickly detect and address issues in its production processes.

Another similarity is the emphasis on continual improvement shared by Tesla’s strategy evaluation, control, and organizational performance. According to Kaplan and Norton (2008), KPIs are used in Tesla’s strategy evaluation and management to track the company’s performance and pinpoint improvement areas. [RW24] The organizational success of the business also reflects this emphasis on continuous development. Tesla has sustained high client loyalty and satisfaction levels due to its dedication to producing new, high-quality products. 

Focusing on financial performance is one significant distinction between Tesla’s strategy evaluation and control and organizational performance. According to Kryvoviaziuk et al 2021, Tesla’s organizational effectiveness is gauged by financial performance, with the company’s revenue rising annually. Nevertheless, Tesla’s strategy evaluation and control aren’t entirely centered on financial results. Instead, the organization’s strategy evaluation and control are concentrated on utilizing data and analytics to enhance production processes and pinpoint areas for improvement.[RW25] 

Tesla’s emphasis on employee engagement is another distinction between its strategy evaluation, control, and organizational performance. Tesla’s corporate success is evaluated by employee engagement, and the Company receives good scores for employee happiness and retention, according to Kryvoviaziuk et al 2021, Yet, it doesn’t appear like Tesla’s strategy evaluation and control are entirely focused on staff engagement. Instead, the organization’s strategy review and control are concentrated on leveraging data and analytics to pinpoint areas where its manufacturing processes can be improved. [RW26] 

Effective leadership[RW27] 

According to Khan (2021), effective leadership is a critical factor in driving the success of an organization. Leaders’ strategic planning affects an organization’s performance. This literature evaluation compares strategic planning and organizational effectiveness in Tesla Incorporated based on excellent leadership. Products like the Tesla Model S electric automobile are innovative and forward-thinking. Tesla’s success is often attributed to its visionary founder, Elon Musk (Khan et al., 2021). Musk’s ability to set aspirational goals and inspire his team is his leadership style. He has helped Tesla produce some of the most innovative electric cars by emphasizing inventiveness and taking risks. According to Khan (2021), strategic planning is essential for aligning the organization’s resources toward a common goal. Organizational performance depends on the ability of leaders to create a culture of excellence and motivate their employees.

Tesla has positioned itself as a leader in the electric vehicle industry by investing heavily in research and development (Singh & Aggarwal, 2022). Innovation is key to Tesla’s strategic strategy and success. A culture of innovation and strategic investments are needed to promote innovative products and technology. Organizational leadership [RW28] is required. Yet, Tesla’s strategic planning and organizational performance differ.. The main difference between strategic planning and organizational performance is time. Strategic planning takes time and focuses on a company’s long-term goals. Yet, an organization’s success is measured by near-term criteria like quarterly or annual financial results. 

Another difference is that strategic planning uses metrics differently from organizational performance. Key performance indicators (KPIs)—unique to the organization’s business model—are used to measure organizational performance, but metrics are used to measure strategic planning progress. Tesla’s KPIs may include production, revenue, and market share. Finally, stakeholder involvement is important for building a strong culture and gaining support for strategic initiatives.[RW29] 

 Enhanced Client Satisfaction[RW30] 

An important component of the success of any firm is an increase in consumer happiness. The electric cars manufactured by the Company are known for their high level of quality and for meeting or exceeding the requirements set forth by the company’[RW31] s customers. Planning strategically is essential in guaranteeing that Tesla will meet its objective of delivering exceptional levels of customer satisfaction. 

According to research, the degree of customer satisfaction in the automobile industry is positively influenced by strategic planning (Andelkovic et al., 2022). According to the study’s findings, businesses with well-developed processes for strategic planning are better equipped to identify and fulfill the demands of their customers, which results in higher levels of customer satisfaction. Tesla comprises gaining an awareness of the requirements of their clientele and coming up with unique solutions to fulfill those requirements. Tesla has been successful in keeping a high level of customer satisfaction by acting in this manner.

Moreover, a study by Andelkovic et al (2022), examined the impact of strategic planning on organizational performance in the automotive industry. According to the study’s findings, strategic planning has a considerable and beneficial effect on both the level of satisfaction experienced by customers and the overall performance of organizations. Tesla has realized its goal of offering higher user happiness, contributing to the company’s overall success. This goal was accomplished by concentrating on strategic planning.

In addition to its strategic planning, Tesla has emphasized providing customers with a satisfying experience through its various sales and service channels. According to a report by Xia (2022), Tesla ranked highest in customer satisfaction among luxury electric vehicle brands in North America. The report emphasized how well Tesla performed in terms of product quality and reliability, dealership experience, and customer satisfaction with service. According to these findings, Tesla’s strategic planning has resulted in a customer-centric strategy, significantly influencing user happiness.

Even though Tesla has succeeded in increasing user happiness, there have been certain obstacles. For instance, Tesla’s direct-to-consumer sales model has faced criticism from traditional dealerships and regulators. However, Tesla has continued to innovate and find ways to provide a positive user experience. For example, the company has developed mobile service vans to travel to customers’ locations to perform routine maintenance and repairs. This approach has helped to address [RW32] concerns about access to service centers and has improved user satisfaction.

Functional Awareness[RW33] 

The level of comprehension and expertise an organization possesses regarding the myriad of departments and tasks within its purview is called “functional awareness.” [RW34] This understanding is essential for building effective strategic plans and accomplishing the performance targets that have been set for the organization. In the case of Tesla Inc., [RW35] the process of strategic planning and overall organizational performance are significantly impacted by functional awareness within the corporation.

According to the findings Sharma et al. (2022), functional awareness has a favorable impact on the organizational performance of companies in the automobile industry. According to the study results, one of the most important factors in reaching performance goals is having a solid understanding of various functional areas, such as marketing, manufacturing, and finance. The strategic planning approach utilized by Tesla requires an in-depth comprehension of each department and function, which is one of the factors that has led to the success of the Company.

Tesla’s emphasis [RW36] on research and development (R&D) is one manifestation of the Company’s functional awareness. The Company has made significant investments in R&D to create novel electric vehicles and advance battery technology.  R&D efforts made by Tesla have assisted the firm in remaining ahead of its rivals in the market for electric cars and in preserving its position as the market leader. This emphasis on  R&D is an example of functional awareness and its impact on a company’s performance.

In addition, Tesla’s functional awareness has been demonstrated in the Company’s management of its supply chain. The organization has established strong working relationships with its vendors and has embraced forward-thinking supply chain techniques, including vertical integration (Latin et al, 2021) found that the effective management of Tesla’s supply chain is one of the most important contributors to the success of the Company.[RW37]  The research underscores Tesla’s focus on knowing each component of its supply chain and the impact thatdoing so has on the performance of the firm.

Evolving Business Landscape

Because the environment in which businesses operate is constantly in flux, companies must adjust their tactics to maintain their competitiveness. Tesla Inc. is a company that competes in the extremely cutthroat automobile business, which has also experienced substantial shifts in the past several years. Strategic planning has been vital for the industry to navigate these changes and meet its organizational performance goals successfully. According to the findings of a study conducted by Khan (2021), strategic planning is required for businesses to adapt to the ever-evolving nature of the business world successfully. The research underlines the significance of elements such as market trends, technology breakthroughs, and regulatory changes in sculpting the landscape of the corporate world. Tesla has shown a capacity to adjust to the changes with its strategic planning process.

The fact that Tesla emphasizes electric vehicles indicates the company’s ability to adapt to the changing business landscape. The corporation saw a growing need for electric cars and responded by developing unique goods to satisfy that desire. Consumers have shown a high level of satisfaction with Tesla’s electric automobiles, which has helped the business establish itself as a frontrunner in the market for electric vehicles. The fact that Tesla is placing so much emphasis on electric cars is one illustration of how the company’s strategic planning approach has enabled it to adjust to the shifting environment of the business world.

In addition, Tesla’s strategic planning strategy has been essential to the company’s success in negotiating changes in regulatory requirements. For instance, the corporation has struggled to meet the stringent requirements set forth by the government regarding emissions rules. Yet, Tesla has developed new battery technology and expanded its charging infrastructure to comply with these laws (Mongkol, 2021). These are only two of the initiatives that Tesla has done. This strategy exemplifies Tesla’s capacity to adjust its strategic plans in response to the shifting regulatory landscape. 

Tesla, despite its success, has run into difficulties due to the rapidly changing landscape of the corporate world. For instance, the corporation has been confronted with rising rivalry from other automobile manufacturers who have entered the market for electric vehicles. Nonetheless, Tesla has taken measures to combat this competition, including broadening its product line and emphasizing the development of new products.

Accelerating Innovation

The ability to innovate is essential to the success of any firm, and Tesla Inc. is well-known for its emphasis on the invention[RW38]  (Akakpo et al., 2019). The process of strategic planning that the corporation uses has been quite helpful in fostering innovation and meeting the performance goals that the organization has set for itself. According to a study conducted by Wu et al. (2021), strategic planning can encourage creativity by establishing a distinct path and goal for the firm. Tesla has primarily emphasized creating innovative products and technologies during its strategic planning process. They include electric automobiles, solar energy products, and technology that enables autonomous driving.

How Tesla approaches innovation has been described as disruptive and has challenged the old norms of the automobile industry. For instance, the company’s electric automobiles have caused a disturbance in the traditional market for internal combustion engines, and the company’s solar energy products have presented a challenge to the conventional models for energy generation. The strategic planning approach at Tesla has enabled the business to recognize and make the most of the opportunities for disruptive innovation.

Investing in research and development is one way that Tesla demonstrates its dedication to innovation. The corporation devotes significant resources to research and development, allocating more than $1.4 billion to this endeavor in 2020 alone (Akakpo et al, 2019). Because of this investment, the Company has developed innovative goods and technology that have challenged the conventional business models in their respective industries.[RW39] 

In addition,[RW40]  the strategic planning method that Tesla utilizes centerson establishing an innovative mindset within the company culture. The company actively encourages employees to think creatively and take chances. Its flat organizational structure, which allows for free communication and cooperation, also helps stimulate innovation within the Company. Tesla has struggled with issues connected to creation, despite its tremendous success. For instance, the organization has been criticized for concerns about manufacturing delays and quality control problems. However, Tesla has taken steps to solve these difficulties, including introducing new manufacturing methods and quality control systems. These are only some of the actions that Tesla has done.


Designing a set of significant differences to put the company’s offerings apart from those of competitors is the process of differentiation (Semuel et al., 2017).  A business can distinguish itself in several ways, such as by providing cutting-edge features, launching successful campaigns, offering superior service, and building a strong brand name(Farhana & Bimenyimana, 2015). According to Semuel et al. (2017), companies that employ a differentiation strategy tend to highlight distinctions across a range of factors to help customers distinguish between their products and those of competitors. Tesla has differentiated itself from traditional automotive manufacturers by focusing on electric vehicles, sustainable energy, and autonomous driving technology. Differentiation allows Tesla to stand out from its competitors. The fact that Tesla focuses on electric vehicles, environmentally friendly energy, and technology that enables autonomous driving sets it apart from other automakers.  [RW41] According to a study conducted by Gurzawska (2020), differentiation is a useful technique for increasing organizational performance since it enables businesses to compete based on the unique value propositions they offer. The strategic planning process at Tesla has been centered on creating distinctive value propositions for each of the company’s products. This has enabled the company to separate itself from its competition.

One example of Tesla’s approach to differentiating itself from its competitors is the company’s emphasis on renewable energy. As a result of Tesla’s acquisition of SolarCity in 2016 and the firm’s development of solar energy products, the company can now offer consumers interested in sustainable energy solutions a value proposition distinct from that of its competitors. Similarly, introducing Tesla’s electric automobiles has enabled the business to set itself apart from traditional automotive manufacturers, which have been sluggish in incorporating the technology behind electric vehicles. One illustration of Tesla’s differentiating approach is the Company’s emphasis on developing autonomous driving technologies. Tesla has been at the forefront of the development of technology for autonomous driving, and the Company’s Autopilot system offers customers interested in self-driving cars an unparalleled value proposition in the industry.[RW42] 

Tesla’s strategic planning process has also focused on differentiating itself through its brand (Saxena et al, 2021). The Company has developed a powerful brand that centers on innovation, sustainable practices, and luxury, which has enabled it to attract clients who place a high value on those characteristics. Tesla’s ability to develop a devoted customer base and charge premium pricing for its products is directly attributable to the firm’s ability to differentiate its brand, which has been an essential factor in driving the success of the company.

Despite challenges related to quality control issues and production delays, Tesla has taken steps to address these challenges (Saxena et al, 2021). For instance, the organization has been criticized for problems with quality control and production delays. However, Tesla has taken steps to solve these difficulties, including introducing new manufacturing methods and quality control systems. These are only some of the actions that Tesla has done.[RW43] 

Environmental Sustainability

Environmental sustainability [RW44] has become a significant concern for corporations, and Tesla has positioned itself as a pioneer in this field. According to the website for the corporation, Tesla’s purpose is to hasten the transition to more environmentally friendly forms of electricity (Tesla Inc., n.d.). The company’s strategic planning method has been centered on realizing its objective by producing electric vehicles and implementing sustainable energy solutions (Tesla Inc., 2021).

Compared to gasoline-powered automobiles, the electric vehicles produced by Tesla have been commended for their positive impact on the environment. According to a study conducted by Teske et al. (2016), the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles are lower than those of gasoline-powered cars. In addition, Tesla’s emphasis on developing environmentally friendly power sources has resulted in production items such as solar panels and battery storage systems (Tesla Inc., 2021).[RW45] 

Tesla’s dedication to sustainably preserving the environment has also benefited the company’s overall performance. According to a study conducted by Nijssen et al. (2020), businesses with a strong commitment to sustainability typically have higher financial performance when compared to companies that do not emphasize sustainability. In addition, the environmental sustainability initiatives that Tesla has been doing have assisted the company in distinguishing itself from conventional automobile manufacturers. Tesla has established a one-of-a-kind value proposition for customers that places a premium on environmental responsibility by emphasizing electric vehicles and environmentally responsible energy solutions (Tesla Inc., 2021).[RW46] 

Tesla has not wavered in its commitment to making environmental sustainability a top priority in its strategic planning process, despite obstacles like production delays and quality control problems. In its Impact Report for 2021, the company emphasizes its progress toward meeting its sustainability targets, which include reducing its carbon footprint and expanding its usage of renewable energy sources (Tesla Inc., 2022).

 Stakeholder management

Stakeholder management is recognizing and resolving the demands and interests of stakeholders, including clients, staff members, investors, communities, and the environment. Tesla has shown a dedication to stakeholder management by considering their requirements and interests while developing and executing its strategic plans. Asif and Nasiri (2021) assert that Tesla’s emphasis on stakeholder management has boosted its success and competitive edge.

The consumer wants and interests have been the main considerations in Tesla’s strategic planning and execution. The company has been able to set itself apart from conventional automakers by creating electric cars that are not only high-performing and technologically innovative but also ecologically benign. By offering outstanding customer service and using consumer feedback to enhance its products, Tesla has also greatly emphasized client satisfaction. Tesla’s dedication to customer satisfaction has produced a devoted client base willing to pay a premium for its derivatives (Schreiber & Pashkevich, 2021).

Employees. Tesla’s staff’s needs and interests have been considered during strategic planning and implementation. Employees can now actively participate in creating new goods and technology thanks to the company’s adoption of an innovative and creative culture. Tesla has also implemented measures to support worker development and well-being, including competitive pay, stock options, and health benefits. These initiatives result from high staff retention and satisfaction rates (Schreiber & Pashkevich, 2021).

Investing. Tesla’s strategic planning and execution have considered its investors’ requirements and interests. Due to its inventive approach to making electric vehicles and its potential for growth in the clean energy industry, the Company has drawn a sizeable amount of investment. To address investors’ concerns and uphold their faith, Tesla has established transparency and accountability measures like publishing quarterly financial reports and hosting regular investor meetings (Asif & Nasiri, 2021).

Communities. The needs and interests of the communities in which Tesla operates have been considered during the strategic planning and implementation process. The corporation’s establishment of production facilities and service centers in numerous areas has helped boost local economies and create jobs. To lessen its influence on the environment and advance societal well-being, Tesla has also incorporated sustainable practices into its operations, such as using renewable energy sources and recycling materials (Schreiber & Pashkevich, 2021).

Environment. Environmental stakeholders’ requirements and interests have been considered during Tesla’s strategic planning and execution. Electric vehicles and other clean energy solutions that lower greenhouse gas emissions and support environmental sustainability have been developed due to the company’s objective to hasten the global transition to sustainable energy. Tesla has also incorporated sustainable methods into its operations to lessen its ecological influence, such as using renewable energy sources and recycling materials (Asif & Nasiri, 2021).

Tesla’s dedication to stakeholder management has favorably affected the organization’s performance. Due to the company’s emphasis on customer satisfaction, it has a devoted customer base prepared to spend more on its products, which has generated significant revenue growth. High employee satisfaction and retention rates due to Tesla’s investment in staff development and wellness have helped foster a healthy workplace culture and produce high-quality goods. Tesla has retained investor confidence and attracted significant investment because of its transparency and accountability policies, which have helped the Company’s finances remain stable and grow. Tesla’s dedication to environmental stakeholders and sustainable business practices have also improved brand recognition and boosted market demand for green products.

Risk management

Setting long-term goals[RW47] , determining the resources needed, and creating procedures to attain those goals are all part of strategic planning, a crucial aspect of organizational performance. Similarly, risk management is an important component of strategic planning and entails identifying, evaluating, and reducing any risks that could harm an organization’s performance. With a specific emphasis on risk management, this literature review examines the similarities and variations in the link between strategic planning and organizational performance. Tesla Corporation is a prominent global manufacturer of electric vehicles.

It is impossible to exaggerate how important risk management is to organizational effectiveness. According to studies[RW48] , businesses that use good risk management procedures are more likely to succeed in their goals and outperform their competitors (Kryvoviaziuk et al, 2021). Tesla has also shown a dedication to risk management, and the firm has put in place some steps to recognize, evaluate, and reduce potential hazards. For instance, Tesla has made enormous investments in cybersecurity measures to safeguard its information systems against cyber intrusions, a major concern in the automobile business (Sharma et al., 2022). The Company has also implemented procedures to manage supply chain risks, such as locating and minimizing potential disruptions.

The interaction between strategic planning and risk management can greatly impact an organization’s performance. Developing plans to address opportunities and risks is a key component of strategic planning. However, an organization must clearly understand its objectives and strategies to effectively identify and assess potential risks (Kryvoviaziuk et al, 2021). Tesla’s success can be ascribed to its successful integration of risk management and strategic planning. Strategic planning by the corporation has allowed it to recognize and seize market opportunities for electric vehicles. In contrast, risk management procedures have assisted in reducing possible hazards, including supply chain interruptions and cyber threats.

Organizational Resources

Organizational Resources are all the resources that a company has at its disposal to use in the manufacturing process. Using organizational resources for enhanced performance is necessary in every organization (Rose et al., 2010). The phrase “management of organizational resources” [RW49] refers to maximizing the use of resources like assets, information, people, and money. Due to improper management of these resources, many companies fall short of their goals. According to the company’s resource-based view (RBV), certain resources that companies own and control have the potential to produce a competitive advantage, which finally results in superior firm performance (Agyemang et al., 2019; Mokhtarzadeh et al., 2020).

Strategic intent is a clear vision of how an organization wants to grow and is crucial in determining how resources are allocated and how capabilities are developed (Streimikiene, 2019). Companies with weak strategic intent lack desire and frequently struggle to define goals that are realistic.  The goal of strategic intent is to outperform rivals and take the market. It represents and articulates a strategy for gaining an advantage over competitors (Gupta & Vardhan, 2016). In their investigation of resources and returns, Agyemang et al. (2019) analyzed the value of examining businesses from the resource side as opposed to the product side.  They conclude that the foundation for achieving and maintaining a competitive advantage position is a collection of resources, including brand names, technology, skilled labor, trade relationships, machinery, effective processes, and capital. Furthermore, Streimikiene (2019) contends that the longevity of a firm’s competitive advantage and asset position depend on how straightforward it is to duplicate or replace its assets. They emphasize that factors including asset stock, time compression diseconomies, asset mass efficiencies, interconnectedness, asset deterioration, and causal ambiguity have a substantial impact on how resources and competitive advantage interact.[RW50] 

Global expansion

Organizations decide to grow globally as a strategic move to expand their activities outside the home market. Global expansion can increase market share, revenue, and greater organizational performance. [RW51] Strategic planning, which entails setting long-term goals, determining the resources needed, and building procedures to attain those objectives, is key in deciding worldwide expansion. Using Tesla Corporation as a case study, this literature review examines the similarities and variations in the relationship between strategic planning and organizational performance, focusing on worldwide expansion.

Globalization and Business Performance. A strategic choice like expanding internationally can greatly affect a business’s performance. According to studies, worldwide expansion can boost market share, revenue growth, and financial success. [RW52] Tesla has also used international development to produce notable performance results (Saxena & Vibhandik, 2021). China, Japan, and various European nations are among the many countries where the corporation has grown its activities. The company improved its market share and revenue growth thanks to Tesla’s global expansion, which greatly aided its remarkable financial success.

Strategic Planning and Global Expansion. Successful worldwide expansion depends on strategic planning, and the two are related. Strategic planning enables organizations to recognize possibilities and hazards in the global market and provide solutions (Chehertma et al., 2022). An organization can use strategic planning to assess its strengths and weaknesses and decide if it is well-positioned to grow internationally. To obtain sustainable results during effective global expansion, a business must incorporate social and environmental factors into its strategic planning process. Tesla’s remarkable combination of strategic planning and consideration of social and ecological aspects is why its global expansion has been so successful. Strategic planning by the business has allowed it to see and seize opportunities in the global electric car market. Its dedication to sustainable energy has helped it establish a favorable brand reputation in other regions.

Competitive Advantage and Performance

Strategic planning in a company produces a competitive advantage that affects performance (Malagihal, 2021). Most of the time, a competitive advantage is attained by the application of competitive tactics including product differentiation, cost control, and focus strategies. These tactics increase productivity, market share, and sales volume. Large manufacturing organizations, according to Pavlínek (2023), employ competitive advantage to control costs and boost productivity for improved performance. Further, they pointed out that in order to achieve competitive advantage, competitive strategies needed to be put into practice through good strategic planning.  The performance of automotive companies is impacted by new business models, which are constantly changing the competitive environment for automotive original equipment manufacturers around the world (Malagihal, 2021; Pavlínek, 2023).

A study by Dudziak et al. (2023) showed that an organization’s performance is influenced by its market share. This is so that the number of sales they can generate depending on the number of clients who are interested in their goods may be determined. Similarly, a study conducted by Manjunatha (2020) revealed that a company’s market share is significantly impacted by its competitive edge. Differentiation, a component of competitive advantage, promotes aggressive pricing, higher productivity, and effective marketing. These elements are closely related to performance.

According to a study by Grosse (2019), the automobile industry needs to remaincompetitive in the manner in which services are provided if it wants to live and remain relevant in the market. It was discovered that corporate culture, technology, and personnel training all contributed to business competitiveness. For the automakers’ operations to remain competitive, these criteria are required to be in alignment with their strategic strategy.  Khazalle et al. (2022) conducted a study to learn more about competition strategies used by United States automobile manufacturers. Their findings indicated that they use cost leadership, concentration, and differentiation methods. These tactics significantly improved their performance.  These businesses placed a strong emphasis on strategic planning in order to obtain economies of scale and cost reduction for desired performance. They saw the need to concentrate on a select group of clients in order to enhance service delivery and to offer distinctive items that would satisfy customers’ particular likes and preferences.

Strategic Planning and Organizational Performance

Although the impact of strategic planning on organizational performance has been hotly contested for many years, it has long been a feature of organizations. The relationship between strategic planning and performance has mixed (both positive and negative) results, although most of the investigations were conducted in institutions in industrialized nations (Varadarajan, 2020). However, recent research studies contend that identifying internal and external factors influencing the relationship between strategic planning and performance is equally significant, while earlier studies were restricted to discovering a directional association.[RW53] 

            According to Joseph (2018), research over the previous three decades has focused heavily on the performance implications of strategic planning. Many studies have examined the connection between FSP and OP[RW54] , however many of these studies [RW55] have come up empty-handed.

Early research indicated that FSP improved performance. Subsequent research concluded that FSP and firm performance did not clearly and consistently correlate. Dmitriy et al. (2019) contend that FSP may be problematic if it adds rigidity and encourages excessive bureaucracy. How well a company accomplishes its goals in relation to successful outcomes is referred to as organizational performance. To accomplish its operational and strategic goals, an organization must be able to find and use limited resources in the most efficient way possible (Bersch et al., 2021; Dmitriy et al., 2019).


Today, strategy planning is a common activity in public and commercial businesses across the globe. Several authors have suggested that strategic planning helps organizations perform effectively (Ali, 2018; Bersch et al., 2021; George et al., 2019). Strategic planning and organizational performance are suggested to be positively correlated in the prescriptive strategic management literature. Strategic planning aims to boost management efficiency, produce outcomes, and impact a company. Performance is subsequently improved directly as a result of this. Performance success is greatly influenced by strategic planning. For these reasons, this study will focus on…..

This chapter conducted a review of the literature on strategy planning. It presents empirical evidence from numerous other academics that have already investigated strategy planning and performance, including information on environmental analysis, mission, vision, and organizational performance. The research methodology will be discussed in chapter 3.


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Akakpo, A., Gyasi, E. A., Oduro, B., & Akpabot, S. (2019). Foresight, organization policies and management strategies in electric vehicle technology advances at tesla. Futures Thinking and Organizational Policy: Case Studies for Managing Rapid Change in Technology, Globalization and Workforce Diversity, 57-69.

Ali, A. A. (2018). Strategic planning–organizational performance relationship: Perspectives of previous studies and literature review. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 11(1), 8-24. International Journal of Healthcare Management

Al-Shami, S., & Rashid, N. (2022). A holistic model of dynamic capabilities and environment management system towards eco-product innovation and sustainability in automobile firms. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 37(2), 402–416. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-04-2020-0217

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Anna, B., & Agnieszka, C. (2022). The Vitamin Model of well-being at work – an application in research in an automotive company. International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health, 35(2), 187-198.  https://doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01614

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Bersch, C. V., Akkerman, R., & Kolisch, R. (2021). Strategic planning of new product introductions: Integrated planning of products and modules in the automotive industry. Omega, 105, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2021.102515

Bolton, B. (2022). From Corporate Social Opportunity to Corporate Social Responsibility. In Corporate Social Responsibility. IntechOpen.

Chehertma, B. (2022). International competitiveness management of Tesla, Inc. during the COVID-19 pandemic (Doctoral dissertation, Private Higher Educational Establishment-Institute “Ukrainian-American Concordia University”).

Deng, P., Liu, Y., Gallagher, V. C., & Wu, X. (2020). International strategies of emerging market multinationals: A dynamic capabilities perspective. Journal of Management & Organization, 26(4), 408-425. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2017.76

Dmitriy, A., Vladimir, K., Vera, V., Tatyana, F., & Darya, I. (2019). Strategic Planning of Cars Quality in Operation. Transport and Telecommunication, 20(1), 74-81 https://doi.org/10.2478/ttj-2019-0007

Dudziak, A., Caban, J., Stopka, O., Stoma, M., Sejkorová, M., & Stopková, M. (2023). Vehicle Market Analysis of Drivers’ Preferences in Terms of the Propulsion Systems: The Czech Case Study. Energies, 16(5), 2418-2438. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16052418

El-Amin, A. (2022). The Impact of the Project Manager to Develop Stakeholder Management. Journal of Management (JOM), 9(2), 6.

Farhana, M., & Bimenyimana, E. (2015). Design Driven Innovation as a Differentiation Strategy – in the Context of Automotive Industry. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, 10(2), 24-38.

George, B., Walker, R. M., & Monster, J. (2019). Does Strategic Planning Improve Organizational Performance? A Meta‐Analysis. Public Administration Review, 79(6), 810-819. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13104

Grosse, R. (2019). Innovation by MNEs in emerging markets. Transnational Corporations, 26(3), 1.

Gupta, P., & Vardhan, S. (2016). Optimizing OEE, productivity and production cost for improving sales volume in an automobile industry through TPM: a case study. International Journal of Production Research, 54(10), 2976-2988. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2016.1145817

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Huang, C. (2023). Dynamic and Ordinary Capabilities in Industry Transformation: The Case of the Electric Vehicle Industry. Management & Organization Review, 19(1), 138–140. https://doi.org/10.1017/mor.2022.59

Jayawarna, S., & Dissanayake, R. (2019). Strategic Planning and Organization Performance: A Review on Conceptual and Practice Perspectives. Archives of Business Research, 7(6), 171-180. https://doi.org/10.14738/abr.76.6684 

Joseph, P. M. (2018). Effect Of Strategic Planning Outcomes On Performance Of Motor Vehicle Industry In Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 6(9), 687-703.

Khazalle, S. S., Haron, H., & Rahim, A. R. (2022). A Comparative Study: Application of Strategic Operations Management Decisions in Automotive Industry Pioneers. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering & Operations Management, 738-748.

Khan, M. R. (2021). A critical analysis of Elon Musk’s leadership in Tesla motors. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 1-10.

Kryvoviaziuk, I. V., Kryvovyazyuk, I., Otlyvanska, H. A., Otlyvanska, G., Shostak, L. V., Sak, T. V., … & Visyna, T. M. (2021). Business diagnostics as a universal tool for study of state and determination of corporation’s development directions and strategies.

Latin, R., Jevtić, P., Živanović, V., & Živanović, N. (2021). The Strategic Role of Human Resources in the Globalization Process. Chinese Business Review20(4), 131-139.

Li, Q., & Deng, P. (2017). From international new ventures to MNCs: Crossing the chasm effect on internationalization paths. Journal of Business Research, 70, 92-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.07.002

Malagihal, S. S. (2021). Strategic Options for Automobile OEMs of Indian Origin to have Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Case of Tata Motors. A Journal of Global Institute of Flexible Systems Management, 16(2), 139-152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42943-021-00029-5

Manjunatha, N. (2020). Internationalization and Innovation Capabilities Determines Export Performance of Indian Auto Component Industry. Acta Technica Corviniensis – Bulletin of Engineering, 13(4), 81–90.

Mojumder, M. R., Ahmed Antara, F., Hasanuzzaman, M., Alamri, B., & Alsharef, M. (2022). Electric Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Technologies: Impact on the Power Grid and Battery. Sustainability (2071-1050), 14(21), 13856. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142113856

Mokhtarzadeh, N. G., Mahdiraji, H. A., Jafarpanah, I., Jafari-Sadeghi, V., & Cardinali, S. (2020). Investigating the impact of networking capability on firm innovation performance: using the resource-action-performance framework. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 21(6), 1009-1034. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIC-01-2020-0005

Mongkol, K. (2021). Strategic Management Practices in Thailand. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 20(4), 1-11.

Panait, M., Ionescu, R., Radulescu, I. G., & Rjoub, H. (2022). The Corporate Social Responsibility on Capital Market: Myth or Reality? In Research Anthology on Developing Socially Responsible Businesses (pp. 1721-1754). IGI Global.

Pavlínek, P. (2023). Transition of the automotive industry towards electric vehicle production in the east European integrated periphery. Empirica, 50(1), 35-73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10663-022-09554-9

Pillai, S. D., Goldfarb, B., & Kirsch, D. A. (2020). The origins of firm strategy: Learning by economic experimentation and strategic pivots in the early automobile industry. Strategic Management Journal, 41(3), 369. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.3102

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 [RW1]Make sure all paragraphs have a minimum of 4-5 sentences.

 [RW2]The purpose statement needs to be exactly the same throughout your paper (all chapters)

 [RW3]I was wondering if you should include a historical perspective regarding EVs. It might interest the reader to learn about the first electric car and the progression from then until now.

 [RW4]Consider revising this sentence for clarity.

 [RW5]Is it “Tesla” or “Tesla Inc.?” Be consistent throughout.

 [RW6]Is this your gap?

 [RW7]Where is research to support the claims in this paragraph?

 [RW8]Where is the research to support the claims in this paragraph?

 [RW9]This study identified both a favorable and negative relationship?

 [RW10]Several concepts are repeated throughout the review. Repeats need to be removed.

 [RW11]So is this what you are going to look at specifically? If so, this should be mentioned in chapter 1 as rationale for your study.


 [RW13]Where is your research to support the claims in this paragraph?

 [RW14]Some words are missing here.

 [RW15]You already mentioned this above. If you need to mention it again, use “As previously mentioned,…”

 [RW16]Words are missing here.

 [RW17]Data from where? Research to support?

 [RW18]On page 5 you wrote, “Despite the growing evidence that business strategy influences growth, little is known about the influences of strategic planning on organizational performance of Tesla Inc. (Qin, 2023; Sudian et al., 2021). However, if appears that there is a significant amount of literature regarding this. How will your research contribute to the existing research?


 [RW19]You wrote this above.

 [RW20]I thought this was already discussed.

 [RW21]This is repeated above.

 [RW22]This is repeat information.

 [RW23]It seems like I read this somewhere else. Make sure it is not repeat information.

 [RW24]This is repeated information.

 [RW25]This is repeat information.

 [RW26]This is repeat information.

 [RW27]This section is titled “Effective Leadership.” Everything written under this heading should bring the reader back to effective leadership. 


Some of the content in this section is not about effective leadership.

 [RW28]Define this for the reader. How does this connect to effective leadership?

 [RW29]How does this information connect to effective leadership?

 [RW30]All of the narrative under this heading is about strategic planning. How does this connect to effective leadership?

 [RW31]the word “company” is not capitalized. I tried to change all of these, but I might have missed some. Be sure to look for any that I might have missed.

 [RW32]Where is the research to support these claims?

 [RW33]This is under the heading of Effective Leadership. How does this fit in?

 [RW34]Need citation. This is a direct quote. You will need to include the page number in the citation as well.

 [RW35]Be consistent with how you present the name of the company. Is it “Tesla” or “Tesla Inc.?” Correct throughout.

 [RW36]Where is research to support the information in this chapter?

 [RW37]Review and revise.

 [RW38]The invention of what?

 [RW39]This was already discussed.

 [RW40]Where is the research to support these claims?

 [RW41]You already wrote this above.

 [RW42]This has already been discussed. Is there a reason why you are repeating it here?

 [RW43]This is repeated information.

 [RW44]Consider defining this for the reader.

 [RW45]This is repeated information.

 [RW46]It seems like I already read this somewhere else.

 [RW47]Where is the research to support these claims?

 [RW48]I only see one study cited. Are there more?

 [RW49]Direct quotes require citations with page number.

 [RW50]Anything in the literature about Tesla and organizational resources?


 [RW52]What studies? Need citations.

 [RW53]Which studies? Citations please.

 [RW54]First, write out acronyms for the reader.

 [RW55]Which studies?

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