Climate models predict that the world’s oceans will become increasingly warmer and acidic, sea levels will continue to rise, and storm and ocean circulation patterns will be altered because of anthropogenic inputs of carbon in the atmosphere. These changes have critical implications for marine life, including direct effects on species physiology and phenology and indirect effects on patterns of distribution and key ecological interactions. Also, these changes are likely to alter the effectiveness of current conservation strategies (e.g., MPAs) in unpredictable ways.1a. Explain how greenhouse gases such as CO2 contribute to climate change. (2 pts)1b. How will global climate change and ocean acidification affect ocean productivity and, ultimately, biodiversity? (2 pts)2. How will marine ecosystems and species adapt and respond to the individual and interactive effects of ocean acidification, anoxia, and warming and to what extent is mitigation possible? (4 pts)3. To what degree can no-take or highly protected MPAs provide resilience or a buffer against ecosystem disruption caused by climate change and ocean acidification? (4 pts)4. What measures can best prevent the extinction and destruction of geographically constrained species and populations in the face of climate change? (4 pts)5. What skills might you need to work in a job focusing on understanding and addressing the consequences of climate change? (4 pts)
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