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lobal Commodity Chains & Negative ExternalitiesThe worldwide network of social relations and labor activities involved in the creation, distribution, consumption, and disposal of a commodity (as defined in Appadurai, p. 3)Social relations: labor, capitalists, nation-states, and consumers; society/natureLabor activities: product design and financing; capture/extraction/cultivation of raw materials; processing; transportation; distribution/sale; purchase/consumption; and disposalImpacts: socioeconomic, political, environmentalQuestionsCulture of capitalism/global commodity chainsKarl Polanyi’s Paradox (as defined in GPCC)Negative externalitiesInternalizing negative externalitiesExample: “The coffee commodity chainis the linked sequence of activities involved in growing coffee, processing it, shipping it, roasting it, … selling it to consumers” (John Talbot) and disposing it.Video example: Coffeehttps://u.osu.edu/commoditychain2015/ (Links to an external site.)AssignmentChoose either a specific commodity or some aspect of a commodity chain (such as its labor and/or ownership/control conditions; social, economic, environmental, and/or health consequences; political violence/wars; etc.).Emphasize relationships and activities of labor, capitalists, nation-states, consumers, and the natural environment.Global culture of capitalismGlobal commodity chainsNegative externalitiesKarl Polanyi’s Paradox (as defined in GPCC; not Michael Polanyi’s Paradox)Challenges of internalizing externalities (more or less = “sustainability”)1000 or more words of narrative text (no maximum word count); college standards of writing;single spaced 11 or 12-point Times New Roman font; in-text citations; references section; Chicago, MLA, or APA format.If you want to focus on Covid-19 (or any other “signature” disease):Covid-19Briefly describe and explain the principal relationships within the global culture of capitalism, including global commodity chains.What are “negative externalities”?What is “Karl Polanyi’s Paradox” (as defined in GPCC; not Michael Polanyi’s Paradox)?What are the basic questions to ask about patterns of disease at any point in time and space?What defines a “signature disease” of a specific historical time and pattern of geographic connections?Describe the possible cause and transmission of Covid-19 in terms of the relationships between (1) culture and disease; (2) cities and disease; (3) environmental change and disease; and (4) human ecology and disease.Within this framework, how is Covid-19 a “signature disease”? And how does it reflect negative externalities and Karl Polanyi’s Paradox?What are arguments for healthcare as a global public good (and as a human right), as opposed to healthcare as an individual, commodified choice?