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The Multi-Stakeholder Merging Experiences of Small Nonprofit Organizations: A Qualitative Case Study About the United Way

Chapter 4 

Data Collection and Analysis


Criteria Quality Indicators Evident Not Evident Not Applicable

1-1 Previews the content of the chapter; explains what readers can expect in this chapter and grabs readers’ attention.

1-2 Provides the way in which it highlights what and how the results and/or findings of data analysis will be reported to answer the research questions and the hypotheses. 

1-3 Informs how the results of data analysis will be used or transcribed.


Participants- Population Sample Description; Research Method and Design; Methodology Approach



2-1 Uses a table, chart, and/or graph to show important results. 

2-2 Includes the explanation or description of the statistical analysis, such as mean values, standard deviations, etc. 

2-3 Includes examples to illustrate the data and additional points. 

2-4 Uses illustrative quotes by strictly following the representation guidelines as agreed upon in the informed consent materials.


3-1 Includes the text to reference the appendix for the results that may involve complex details.

3-2 Selects proper and applicable ways to report raw data for individual participants and presentation of such reports meets high scholarly standards.


Data Collection Instruments; Data Analysis; Quantitative Analysis; Qualitative Analysis; Mixed-Methodology Analysis; Explanations of tests and approach applied to answer research questions



Includes answers to the following questions:

4-1 Do(es) the finding(s) from data analysis connect to and or address research questions and hypotheses? 

4-2 Are limitations/delimitations of the study and analysis of data identified?

4-3 Is/are the finding(s) supported by evidence?


Includes answers to the following questions:

5-1 Are the results easily accessible for the readers?   

5-2 Are the results compiled in an organized manner? 

5-3 Are the results presented in a structured and logical manner?


Includes answers to the following questions:

6-1 Do(es) the result(s) consider framework (conceptual and/or theoretical) that guided the study?

6-2 Do(es) the result(s) imply the magnitude and statistically significance of the study? 

6-3 Do(es) the result(s) consider cross-validation and explain how the information might be generalized to an independent data set? (If application)


Includes answers to the following questions:

7-1 Are the consistency of the results considered and reflected? 

7-2 How are the results of the multiple measures of a construct validated or translated? 

7-3 How are the results of the similar constructs validated?


Includes answers to the following questions:

8-1 Do(es) the result(s) address potential implications for broader impacts and intellectual merits that implies the contributions to academic, non-academic, and scientific fields? 



Outcome of Analysis Findings; Analysis Summation



9-1 Provides background of the design and methodology.

9-2 Provides outcome of findings from analysis.

9-3 The transition from Chapter 3 and to Chapter 4 are composed in a consistent and organized manner.

Stylistic Awareness

10-1 All arguments are written in coherent and convincing manner supported by credible, relevant, and substantive evidence.

10-2 Organizational structures (i.e. introduction, headings for core areas, transition between the paragraphs, and conclusion) are purposeful, effective, and skillful. 

10-3 Uses conventions of the academic writing style (grammar, punctuation, spelling) are at the level expected for publication; consistently uses an effective academic voice and scholarly tone.)

10-4 Adheres to APA style in text citations, references, and conventions to reduce bias in language.





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